Onions are a biannual (a biannual plant grows vegetation the first year and seeds the second) but they are often grown as a annual (a annual grows the vegetation and seeds the same year).

Onions are eaten in many ways their eaten raw sliced in sandwiches, raw in salad, pickled, roasted, sauteed, stuffed, in soup, dried, pretty much every way food is eaten onions are eaten

Onion juice on the skin prevents bug bites. If you pore boiling water over onions and let the water cool and spray it on plants, it will make them more pest resistant. Below are some photos of different onion dishes, don't the pickled onions look good?

Onion are not very nutritious as is shown in the nutrition chart below. Onions are drought hardy to a degree and will thrive when it is very moist making them good in rapidly changing weather, they don't require a lot of soil only a centimeter or two of soil meaning that it is good for rocky soil and they're heat resistant, and go dormant when it gets to cold.

They are not very good for dogs or other pets, though.

Farmer Leo

Common beans

The scientific name of common beans is Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus vulgaris is referred to as string bean, field bean, flagoelet bean, french bean, garden bean, green bean, haricort bean, pop bean, and snap bean I am going to referrer to it as common bean.
I have to specify common bean because there are many kinds of beans that belong to different species.

Common beans classically make people fart, they make people fart because they contain a sugar that the bacteria in the large intestine break down releasing gas.

Boil dry common beans for at lest 10 minutes at at lest 100°C to destroy Phytohaemagglutinin. Phytohaemagglutinin is a poisonous toxin in dry common beans, the symptoms of Phytohaemagglutinin poisoning are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Very few people with knowledge of medicine know about Phytohaemagglutinin poisoning so if you had it and went to the hospital you would likely be misdiagnosed.

How to grow common beans:

plant 10 inches apart ½ deep put a 4 foot poll next to each bean keep the soil moist as deep as the plant is tall. Harvest when beans are dry.

How to grow bush beans

plant 15 inches apart ½ inches deep keep the soil moist one inch deeper than the plant is tall harvest when the beans are dry.

Below is a nutritional chart and a picture.

Farmer Leo

Pease porridge hot, pease porridge cold,
Pease porridge in the pot, nine days old;
Some like it hot, some like it cold,
Some like it in the pot, nine days old


The scientific name of spear mint is mentha spicata.
Spear mint is a perennial because its root don't die every one to two years and it is constantly putting out new shouts.

How to grow:

take a green mint branch put the bottom 2 centimeters in a small pot of soil keep the soil in the pot moist, when it is healthy trance plant to a pot that is 15 or more inches across you can put it on your porch or if it has no bottom in your garden keep the soil in your pot moist, every spring before it re emerges mulch it with a mixture of 1/5 dirt 2/5 manure 2/5 partial rotten organic mater such as duff and wood chips.

Spear mint oil can be used as an insecticide for adult moths.

Spear mint is native to Europa, during the middle ages spear mint was used as a air freshener and to deter rats and mice.

Dolmas ingredients

  • 1 cup cooked rice
  • 1 table spoon dried spearmint
  • ½ table spoon lemon juice
  • 10 grape leafs
  • 1 cup olive oil
  • 1 tea spoon salt

mix the rice, spearmint, lemon juice, olive oil, and salt, in a bowl. Put a table spoon of this mixture on each grape leaf. Fold the grape leaves around the mixture steam them all at once for 5 minutes.

Below is a nutritional chart and a picture of spearmint

Farmer Leo.

Picture and chart from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumpkin


Lettuce is a green. It does not keep well because of its high water content, you can't freeze it you can't dry it and you can't can it and it only keeps one or two weeks in the refrigerator. It is mainly eaten in salads, but some times it is eaten in soups. Asparagus lettuce which is grown for the stock is eaten in dishes other than salad and soup.

Lettuce was originally a weed in Egypt. The seeds were made into oil, but lettuce was bred to be a succulent green, but there is still a variety that is grown for the oil in the seeds.

Leaf lettuce has looser leaves that as it matures you cut off leaves, but head lettuce the leaves grow pretty tight and instead of cutting a few leaves at a time you wait until a head of lettuce has formed and then you cut off the whole thing. Leaf lettuce matures at 58 to 64 days for butterhead, 40 to 45 days for loose leaf, 70 to 75 days for romaine. Plant seeds ¼ of an inch or a little less deep after the first week then thin the seed lings to 3 inches apart, in another two or three weeks thin to 6 inches apart let grow to full sized leaves. I think you should use the seedlings you got from thinning in a salad, they would be tender. As soon as it gets hot lettuce bolts or goes to seed and gets bitter.

Because lettuce is rarely cooked if it has had exposure to bacteria and or virus people that eat it are more likely to get infected. While lettuce is in coolers the bacteria and or virus are multiplying. Lettuce has been blamed for several outbreaks of Ebola.

Farmer Leo


Jerusalem-artichokes, also known as sunchokes and sunroots are grown for there root. They are easy to grow from roots, they grow like a weed, if you do not want their roots to tangle and form big root clusters plant them 4 feet apart, if you do want big root clusters plant 6 inches apart, 2 inches is deep enough to plant them. Plant in late fall, keep the soil moist 4 inches deep from when you plant them to 3 weeks after they sprout and then again during the hottest weeks of summer. Harvest in fall a few days after all the vegetation has died. Use a spud fork to harvest by sticking it in the ground a few feet from the base of the plant and levering so that the head of the spud fork is out of the ground. Put the tubers in a bucket with dirt in a cool dry place for maximum storage life. Do not worry about planting again the next year because they will come back from a little piece of root and it is very hard to get all the root out of the ground, and unless you literally plant them in a wooden box they will spread all over your garden.

Jerusalem-artichokes are eaten in many ways their roasted, raw in salad, and in more ways.

  • Roasted Jerusalem-artichokes
  • ingredients
  • 20 big Jerusalem-artichokes
  • ¼ cups olive oil
  • 1 tea spoon salt
  • 1 table spoon garlic
  • 1 cup water

Break apart the Jerusalem-artichokes, wash thoroughly, do not wash with soap, throw out the dirt, put them in a oven pan with the water evenly sprinkle on the the olive oil garlic and salt cook in oven at 350°F until you can easily stick a fork in to one. Makes 10 servings.

Jerusalem-artichokes were first grown by native Americans long before Europeans arrived. When Jerusalem-artichokes were brought back to France they were use mainly as food for live stock.

Its said that Jerusalem-artichokes are more suitable for swine than men because the bacteria in the gut create gas when the break down inulin, witch is a dietary fiber.

When properly fermented Jerusalem-artichokes can be made into alcohol.

Farmer Leo


Poppies are grown for there seeds. There are three commonly known kinds poppy California poppy, opium poppy, and corn poppy. Because poppies are growing in Flanders field they are associated with dead solders from World War I.

How to grow poppies. Mix the seeds with sand, and sprinkle on were you want to grow them, dust on a thin lair of dirt, keep the soil moist one centimeter deep until they sprout, when they sprout water one inch deeper every inch taller they get, when the flowers are pollinated tape plastic bags around the bottom of the seed packet when seeds start building up in the bottom of the bag cut off the seed packet.

Poppy seed are mainly eaten but opium seeds are made into opium. Corn poppy seeds will also be made into oil.

Poppies where domesticated in central Europa between 6000 and 3500 BC.

Farmer Leo

Photo and chart from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_bean

Photo and chart from:


Photo credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pea

Natural Easter egg dyes.

You might want to use natural Easter egg dyes because they only stain through the shell, and not the egg it's self. If there is a crack and if it does stain through the shell it can't hurt you in any way and if you have extra dye you can drink it because it is basically tea, and with natural dye if you do not like how part of your egg is dyed you can wash that part off. But which ones work?

I looked up some natural Easter egg dyes and I choose some dyes to make. The first was gray-blue, it was made by heating one cup blue berries, and one cup water to room temperature and then removing the blue berries with a slot spoon and pouring the liquid in a cup the liquid stained the egg blue.

For blue I cut ¼ head of red cabbage into chunks and I put it and four cups water in a pot and got it up to boiling and then I turned the stove of and removed the cabbage with a slot spoon and I poured the liquid into a large bowl it made a beautiful blue, but when I stirred in the vinegar like the recipe said to, it turned pink and did not stain the egg.

Then was jade green, I took six red onion skins and simmered them in 1 ½ cup water for 15 minutes it made a clear liquid, when I added the vinegar like it said it turned very light pink, I poured it in to a small bowl, the dye did not stain the egg.

Next was orange I simmered six yellow onion skins in 1 ½ cups of water for 15 minutes, it made yellow water. To test the vinegar, since it turned the other dyes pink, I put most of it in a bowl but part of it in a cup and added the vinegar it turned the die in the cup clear so I did not add vinegar to the dye in the bowl the dye stained the egg yellow.

I peeled a carrot and put it in the pot with 1 ½ cups water and simmered it for 15 minutes and it made a light yellow liquid, I put most of it in a bowl but part of it in a cup and added the vinegar it turned the dye in the cup clear so I did not add vinegar to the dye in the bowl, the dye did not stain the egg.

We made beets, so as a dye I thought of using purple beet juice as a dye and I also thought of rubbing black berries on the egg shell as a dye, both of which worked well.

The cabbage the carrot and the red onion dye did not stain the eggs at all but the yellow onion dye stained the egg yellow and the blue berry dye stained the egg blue the beet juice stained the eggs red the black berry stained the egg purple.

I mixed black berry blue berry and beet juice and dyed a egg in the mix of juices the mix of juices made the egg gray blue. The liquid winner of the dyes was beet juice the over-all winner was black berries. On the yellow and blue egg I drew an 'e' with a black berry for Easter egg.

Farmer Leo

Photo and chart from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinach#Iron


Usually when someone hears the word beet they think of purple beetroot but really there are many different kinds of beets such as spinach beet, which is a lot like chard. There are many different colors of beet, red, gold, white, there is a kind of white beet that has been grown for sugar. Beets have been cooked in many dishes they have been boiled, pickled, roasted, raw and the greens have been eaten raw in salads and steamed when they are young and tender, but when they are larger they are used in stir-fry. Purple beet juice has been use for a natural food coloring for awhile it has been used for cereal, ice cream, jams, jellies, sauces, and deserts. This Valentines day you could use it as a coloring for a Valentines day pastry.

Some people, when they eat purple beets their urine and/or poop is purplish red, this is called beeturia.  It doesn't hurt you, but can be mistaken for something more serious.

55 to 75 days from germination till harvest of root.   You should soak the seeds in water for a few hours before planting.  Plant about a month before the last frost. Beets were used to treat diseases that had to do with poop or blood, and beets are very nutritious as is shown on the nutritional chart below.

Farmer Leo


Garlic (allium sativum) is grown for the cloves and the stock. It is eaten in many ways pickled, on toast, roasted, in oil and in many more ways. It is part of the onion family, and has been cultivated for 7000 years in Central Asia.

Garlic was believed to ward off demons werewolf’s and vampires by rubbing it on chimneys key holes and hanging it in windows in Central and Western Europe. It is used in the New Year's ceremony in many Iranian countries, and in many Hindu cultures it is thought to stimulate desire.

It was also used in white magic, particularly healing potions. It was later used in medicine. In 2013 garlic was found to lower cholesterol, and had very few side effects. In 2013, it was also found that high garlic consumption was associated with lower risk of prostate cancer and stomach cancer.

Garlic used with cinnamon had an antimicrobial effect, and could store food for long periods of time without it becoming inedible.

Bad breath from eating garlic is actually caused by athyl methyl sulfide, which is found in the plant.

Farmer Leo


Into the compost or into a salad, known as a weed, purslane is edible and packed with vitamins and minerals as is shown here. Baker Creek Seed Farm sells two kinds of the 40 verities of purslane being cultivated. Purslane grows in North America, North Africa Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Malasya and Australasia. People all over grow and eat purslane, go here for a few of many recipes: http://www.prairielandcsa.org/recipes/purslane.html. 

It has a flavor like lemon and cucumber, or cold-weather lettuce, and a gelatinous texture.

Photo and chart credit: www.wikipedia.org

Farmer Leo

Image from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaranth

Chart and image from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic


The scientific name of amaranth is amaranthus. Amaranth will grow in a tropical and subtropical climates. Red root amaranth, more commonly known as pig weed, shows that amaranth will grow in this climate in the Sierras. There are 46 varieties of amaranth. There is a kind of amaranth that threatens agriculture of other crops because it is immune to 4 herbicides and it overcrowds the crops decreasing harvest by 17 to 64%. Some varieties are grown as ornamentals. There are many varieties of amaranth that are prized food crops.

The root, stem, leaves, and the seeds are edible and highly nutritious. It is high in protein and manganese.

Every year in Mesoamerica there is a festival dedicated to amaranth. Amaranth almost went extinct when people in Mesoamerica were banned from growing it after the Spanish conquest. The Indians of Mesoamerica used it as a staple and for dye.

How to grow amaranth: mix 1/10 seeds to 9/10 soft soil gently sow, keep the soil moist as deep as the plant is tall. When the seeds begin to drop off the plant cut the seed heads off, put them a large sheet of paper or piece of cloth to dry for about a week, then separate the seeds from the seed heads.

Throughout Asia the leaves are stir fried, or steamed and mashed with salt, cumin and chili, or fried with chili and onions.

Simple amaranth


1 cup amaranth

3 cups water

Put the amaranth and water in a pot simmer till soft. This just tells you how to make a base for a meal you can add flavorings to your taste.

Farmer Leo

Below: that is a carrot.  Chart and picture from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrot


The History of potatoes.

Potatoes originated in the Andes, they where domesticated between 8000 and 5000 BC. When whites cane to the new world, they brought potatoes back to Europe, among other plants. In order to convince people they were not poisonous, important people would eat them in front of crowds. They soon became a staple.

How to grow potatoes:
Spaces seed potatoes and potato seeds 4 feet apart and 3 inches deep, keep the soil moist 4 inches deep until the plant is two inches tall then keep the soil moist 6 inches deep, when your potatoes flower mound up dirt so that the top of tubers do not pock through the ground, and then remove the flowers repeat, until there is going to be a frost in two weeks then use vegetation trimming tools to slightly damage the vegetation of the potato plants, when the vegetation of the potatoes has been dead two weeks it is time to harvest the potatoes, stick a spud fork in the ground two feet from the stock and lever until the head of the spud fork is out of the ground do this all the way around the plant then pull the plant out of the ground and pull off any potatoes and then sort out the rotten potatoes they go to the pigs chickens or compost eat the damage potatoes demodulate and put the good potatoes in buckets with dry dirt in a cool dark dry place. If you water potatoes a large amount and then do not water them a while and then water them again the tuber skin will crack.

How potatoes are eaten and how to cook potatoes.

Potato are eaten so many ways there eaten mashed, shredded, in pan cakes, in dumplings, and many more ways. Potato dumplings.


12 small potatoes

4 strips of bacon

2 eggs

6 cups water

1 cup grated cheese

Peel the potatoes cook them till soft in two cups water in the microwave for 30 minutes or presser cook till soft, mash with the water that remains, crack in the eggs mix them in thoroughly, cook the bacon cut into thirds put one third of a pace of bacon and one twelfth of the cheese and rap it in one twelfth of the potato duo do this over and over again until you have twelve of them put them in the steamer for 24 minutes.

Buck wheat

The scientific name of buck wheat is Fagopyrum esculentum. Buck wheat was original called beech wheat because its seeds looked similar to that of the beech tree.

How to grow:

Plant when the average temperature is 65, plant ½ inches deep, 8 inches apart, keep soil moist 2 inches deep until the plant is two inches tall then keep the soil moist 4 inches deep until the vegetation is 4 inches tall continue this deepening until the plant is dead then pull the seeds off into a basket or large bowl.


Buck wheat is used to prevent erosion and hold the soil together. Buck wheat is eaten in many ways in pancakes, pasta, crepes, beverages, and more. Buck wheat was domesticated and first grown in south Asia. Before wheat was common buck wheat was the pasta grain.

Buck wheat pancakes ingredients:

  • 1 cup buck wheat flour
  • ¼ cup white rice flour
  • 1 egg
  • 1 cup milk

Mix together the white rice flour and the buck wheat flour mix in the milk and then the egg. Fry in butter.

Molasses sauce ingredients:

  • ½ cup molasses
  • ½ cup water
  • ½ stick butter

In the microwave: Put the molasses water and butter in a bowl an microwave for 60 seconds and then mix.

On the stove top: put the molasses water and butter in a small pot fry on stove top low for 30 seconds well mixing it.

Chart and Picture, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beetroot

Chart and Photo from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckwheat

Chart and photo credit:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem_artichoke

The scientific name of carrots is D. Carota.


The word carrot was adapted from the middle french word for carrot which is carotte which was adapted from the late Latin word for carrot which is carōta which was adapted from the Greek word for carrot which is karotōn which was adapted from the Indo-Europa word for carrot which is ker, which means horn.

Carrots are native and were domesticated in Persia, that area is now Afghanistan and Iran. When carrots were first cultivated they were grown for the greens an the seeds.

Carrots are high B carotene and A carotene which the body digests as vitamin A as a result carrots have 104% daily value of vitamin A. when you eat a raw carrot you get 3% of the vitamin A, when you eat a mashed cooked carrot you get 39% of the vitamin A. carrots are eaten many ways they are eaten raw in salad, cooked in deserts, boiled and mashed, and more.
Carrots are good companion plant for garlic onions and chives.

How to grow:

plant ¼ of an inch deep and four inches apart keep the soil moist 2 inches deep until the greens are 2 inches tall then keep the soil moist 5 inches deep use your own good judgment on when to harvest them.

Below is a nutritional chart and a picture of carrot on a plate.

Farmer Leo.


A radish is a plant with a swollen tap root; it is grown for the tap root but the greens and seeds are also edible; the seeds are made into oil.

Radishes are eaten in many different ways. They're eaten raw in salad, pickled, and raw in slices on buttered toast, and in many more ways.

Considering the fact that radishes are a root vegetable it has a high level of vitamin C as is shown in the nutritional chart below.

There are many different kinds of radish and a very deverse radish is the daikon. Diakon is the 3 inch across 24 inch tall minowase diakon, to the skurajima diakon that commonly get to 15 pounds but occasionally gets to 100 pounds. Its a very big radish and there are many different kinds in between. Below is a photo of two common diakon radish.

Days to mature: 20 to 30, plant as soon as the soil can be worked. Depending on how old your seeds are plant 1 to 3 seed every inch or two depending on the variety, continue planting every week or two for two to four weeks. After the first few weeks weed every other plant in the rows to two to four inches apart depending on the variety. If the plants after a few weeks look like they are or will soon be crowded, weed the radishes that are smaller were they are to closes together continue in till they’re mature. The little radishes you pull will be very tender and they would be like a little snack. Below is a photo of some beautiful red radishes.

Farmer Leo

Photo from wikapedia, chart from http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/spearmint.html

Picture from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomato

Pictures and chart from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion


Celery is eaten many different ways in soup, salad, and many more ways. In Europe the common celery is celeriac. The root of celeriac is larger and the stocks of celeriac are smaller and fibrous so the root is the part of celeriac that is eaten. If you're on a low-calorie diet, eat celery because it takes more calories to digest it than you get from it, but it has vitamins and minerals as is shown in the nutritional chart below.

Below is a picture celery leaves on 2 coins from 515 to 470 BC. The wreaths of the winners of Isthmian games were first made of celery before being replace by crowns made of pine. The garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean games was made of celery.

Quinoa was domesticated in the Andes between 1000 and 2000 BC.

How to grow quinoa:

Before planting soak the seeds in water for 4 hours before planting because soaking increases the number of seeds that sprout, plant 2 seeds ¼ inch deep 10 inches apart, after the seeds sprout wait three days. Were two seeds sprouted cut off the one that is not doing as well as the other, because if you leave the sprout it might make it hard for the other sprout to get enough nutrients, if you try to transplant there would be trauma for both sprouts and if you cut off the sprout you can eat it because the greens are edible. Quinoa only needs water during a dry spell. Quinoa does not like the max temperature to be above 90, it can stand to freeze pretty well but they won't produce well if it gets below 40 while it is flowering. Harvest when the leaves die and the seeds are dry, they're not dry if you can make a dimple in one with your finger nail. When they're dry put them in a basket and shake it then pour it through a breeze into another container then rinse and let them dry again then store in dry place. The seeds are about the size of a average rain drop.

Quinoa greens are eaten raw in salad, and steamed, the grains are eaten more ways, quinoa is eaten like rice, it's made into flakes that can that be used similar to rolled oats, it's made into flour that you can bake with.

Below is a nutritional chart and some pictures.

Farmer Leo

Companion plant

Companion plants can be beneficial to the other plants, for example some plants repel pests that other plants have, some plants release chemicals that stimulate important growth.

With companion plants if one does well with a plant it is not a given that the other plant will do well with it too. It is impossible to tell what plants will do well together without growing them together and apart and comparing them.

It is also possible to use companion plants for more than one use. For example there is a coffee farm and they planted other kinds of trees to improve the soil and the trees now are habitat for migratory birds too.

Allelopathic plants release chemicals that impedes with the growth of other plants or even kill them but Allelopathic plants still have plants that they like and are good companions to.

One of the most common groups of companion plants is corn squash and beans.

Plant:                                 Good companion                               Bad companion
Beans.                        Potatoes, carrots, cucumbers,                Onion, garlic gladiolus, chives.                                                  cauliflower,cabbage, egg plant,
                                       summer savory.

Corn.                    Potatoes, peas, beans,                                           Tomatoes.

                              cucumbers, melons,

                              squash, pumpkins.

Squash.                Nasturtiums, corn.                                                Potatoes.

Farmer Leo.


Every year at the tometina festival 254,000 pounds of tomato are thrown in the tomato fight.
The only edible part of the tomato plant is the fruit.   Tomatoes will be any of the colors of the rainbow.

The biggest tomato grown weighed 7 pounds 12 ounces. The biggest tomato plant ever grown was 65 feet long.

The scientific name of tomatoes is solanum lycopersicum. For dozens of years most of Europe and Asia would not eat tomatoes because they were a member of the nightshade family. Political figures would eat tomatoes so people would know that tomatoes were edible.

How to grow:

plant ¼ deep, 10 inches apart, keep the soil moist 3 until it is 8 inches tall keep the soil moist 7 inches deep.

Farmer Leo

Plant of the Week: Turnips

Turnips are mainly grown for the root, but sometimes they are grown for the greens. Turnips revolutionized the cattle industry because you could feed cattle all year long with them because they wold grow in summer and winter. Jack-o-lanterns were originally made out of turnips.

When I grew turnips we meant them to over-winter, and they did. The rest of the plants we planted either died, went dormant (where the above ground vegetation dies but the root is still alive), or were at a growth stand-still (where the plant is using the nutrition it is getting just to stay alive). The turnips were cold hardy enough that they continued to grow the whole winter.

It is said that if you don't cook a turnip with a potato that the turnip will be bitter because the potato is supposed to absorb the biter a turnip gets when is cooked. I think they're good raw but like eating a lot of raw carrot it is kind of heavy on the stomach.

Farmer Leo


Pumpkins are made into jack-o-lanterns, pumpkins are eaten in pies the most, they are eaten other ways in other cultures. The rind, the flesh, the seeds, and the leaves are edible.

Plant in spring after the last frost, plant in soil high in manure, plant ½ inch deep, plant 12 feet apart, keep the soil most as deep as the plant is tall, if it climbs a wall or fence, then don’t count as high as it climbs as its height.
Most pumpkins only flower in the spring and then form the pumpkins but Cinderella pumpkins have a different tactic it flowers and then the pumpkin that is doing best it develops when ever it is not developing a pumpkin it flowers.

Fun facts: the heaviest pumpkin was 2102 lbs, there is a sport called chunking were people have to build a machine to throw pumpkins.

Farmer Leo

Photo and Chart credit:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radish


Spinach is grown for the leaves. Spinach likes cold weather more than it does warm weather, and does best in temperatures of 60°F (16°C) in the day dropping to 40°F to 45°F (4°C to 7°C) at night. It bolts or goes to seed in warm weather. Plant seeds ½ inch deep, 3 inches apart. Because spinach is grown for the leaves and nitrogen causes leaf growth, you want to give spinach plenty of manure.

It is some times packed in nitrogen gas and some is exposed to radiation to kill bacteria. Many pesticides are used on supermarket spinach. Those are both good reasons to grow your own spinach. People have been growing spinach for around 1200 years all over Eurasia, part of why it was so popular is it was ready in early spring. Spinach is very high in minerals and vitamins as is shown on the nutritional chart blow. Here is a recipe for spinach dip I think is delicious.


10 large spinach leaves
1 cup sower cream
1 cup vegenaise
1 table spoon olive oil
2 medium sized bowls
1tea spoon fresh crushed garlic
¼ tea spoon ground peppercorn

You will also need a large knife.
First we rinse and mince the spinach and then microwave it in olive oil for 2 minuets we mix the vegenaise and sower cream together we mix the spinach into Vegenaise /sour cream and then we add the crushed garlic and the ground peppercorn and we mix it one last time, and we're done. I hope you like it.

Farmer Leo

Photo and chart credit:


Photo and chart credit:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papaver_rhoeas

SEED & FEED report

The SEED & FEED potluck was January 30, 2016 from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mohawk Community Resource Center in Blairsden CA.

Why you would want to save seeds is to preserve heritage varieties. Heirloom varieties have been grown for generations because they can be grown organically and because they come in all shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors.

You shouldn’t save hybrid seeds because hybrid seeds don't sprout as what their parent plant was. You also should not save GMO seeds because the company that sold the seeds to you genetically modified them so they own the rights to them, therefore if you save the seeds you are legally liable to them.

There was a trivia game with teams and prizes and we were questioned about seeds and plants. Here is an example of one the questions: is a biannual a plant that the first year sprouts and grows vegetation and the second year flowers and grows seeds? We answered yes and we were right, but on other questions we were wrong and we lost.

There was a potluck lunch and many of the dishes were made with food that the farmers grew. We grew the Jerusalem artichokes we roasted, and the pumpkin in the pumpkin pie we brought.

There was a talk about seed saving and this is what I learned about seed saving. When you are saving seeds the plant you choose to save the seeds from will reflect on the plants that grow from the seeds you save. If you sell or use the good quality plants and save the seeds from the little sickly plant then the plants that grow from the seeds of the little sickly plant will be littler and more sickly than the last batch of plants. That is why when you are selecting the plants you want to save the seeds from, you want to choose the best plants. So you remember which plants you are going to save the seeds of tie a piece of ribbon or tape to the plants that you are going to save the seeds from.

With tomatoes, you should harvest fruits for seed 5 days after the tomato is at the perfect point for eating. Pick it and put it in a cup and leave it there for a week or so then remove the seeds from the rotten tomato pulp. Leaving the tomato in the cup to rot removes the gelatinous layer off the seeds allowing the seeds to sprout easier. With squash, you manually pollinate when the male and female flowers are about to open. Lightly tape the flowers shut and the next day remove the tape and petals from the male flowers and remove the tape from the female flowers and lightly rub the male flowers on the pistil of the female flower then lightly tape back up the female flowers. The tape doesn’t always work because the bees will sometimes bore a hole through the side of the flower.

Then there was a period were everybody shared seeds. We got many different kinds of seeds. Below are pictures of people sharing seeds.


It's the middle of January, and you're looking for the first thing to plant. Some verities of peas are cold hardy enough to sprout at 40°F (4°C). They mature in 55 to 75 days, mature peas grow better in 59°F (15°C) to 68°F (20°C). Peas will grow up to 2 meters tall. Because peas have adapted to sprout in spring when it is cold and have it warm as they grow, as they grow they become less cold hardy. Peas like all legumes they are able to connect with bacteria fixing nitrogen.

When peas were first grown they were dried and made into soups and porridge, peas have been cultivated since 4800 BC. Field peas kept famine at bay in the Europe. Field peas are dried and made into soups and porridge, whereas garden peas are eaten fresh and immature, fresh green immature garden peas were a luxury.

Farmer Leo


Cabbage is a vegetable it is grown for its head of tight leaves. Cabbage is eaten in many different foods such as sauerkraut, soup, and coleslaw. I like coleslaw, which is basically shredded cabbage with balsamic vinegar pored over it. Chinese cabbage, also known as bok choy and Napa cabbage, is a tall lettuce-shaped head cabbage that is often used for stir-fry and kimchee.

If allowed to, the flowering stocks of cabbage that grow the second year will occasional reach 6.5 feet tall and the root will also reach the same distance, though not always at the same time. Cabbage don't only get tall, they also get heavy. The heaviest cabbage was 138 pounds, and the heaviest dish of cabbage was 2098 pounds. It must have been a fest for the whole town!

It is not the sulfur in the cabbage that makes you fart, but a chemical that the small intestine can't digest, and since the small intestine cant digest it, it creates gas. The sulfur in cabbage is mostly in the seeds, there is less in the plant when it sprouts and it dissipates as the plant grows. Cabbage is impossible to hand pollinate and insects cross pollinate it with other plants so if you want it to bread true you have to isolation it, the distance for isolation is different for different varieties.

Farmer Leo

Chart and photo from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celery